European Credit Transfer System
ECTS is a student-centered credit system based on student work load required to meet the student's objectives expressed via the stipulated learning achievements and competencies of the program.
Development of ECTS
ECTS was formed within the body of Erasmus that is a subtopic of the Lifelong Learning (LLP), formerly named as Socrates, in 1989. ECTS is the only credit system that has been successfully implemented throughout the Europe. The initial purpose of this system is transferring credits. ECTS has been developed as a credit collection system to be implemented in institutional, national, regional and European bases in recent years. It is one of the main objectives of the Bologna decisions accepted in June 1999.
ECTS provides a system that can be read and compared easily by all domestic and foreign students. ECTS eases mobility and academic recognition; as well as can be used within the framework of various programs. ECTS makes European higher education more attractive for the other students from abroad.
Basic Points Regarding ECTS
ECTS is a system based on 60 credits for one academic year (1. semester 30 credits + 2. semester 30 credits) in terms of workload of students. Approximately 1500-1800 hours of student workload is considered equivalent to this credit in Europe. In this case, ECTS is equivalent to 20-30 hours of work experience.
ECTS credits can only be obtained by completing the desired work in a successful way and in consequence of the evolution of learning achievements. Learning achievements and skills demonstrate what a student will know, understand and be able to do after a short or long period of learning process.
The student workload in ECTS consists of the time required for all previously planned learning activities (conferences, seminars, special workings, projects, exams, etc.) that a student has to complete.
Credits are allocated in compliance with the all forms of education (module, course, internship, scientific research, etc.) and student course load. These credits introduce the total work load required to successfully complete a one-year study.
A student's success is determined by the local (national) grading system. ECTS grading system is a very good practice especially in the case of credit transfer. The ECTS grading system determines a student's achievements statistically. Therefore, determining a student's performance as a statistical data is a prerequisite for the application of the ECTS grading system, and the passing grades are as follows:
A the best 10%
B the next 25%
C the next 30 %
D the next 25%
E the next 10%
A distinction was also made between FX and F, the grades used for unsuccessful students. FX: Unsuccessful, the student may get passing grade by making up his/her deficiencies. F: Unsuccessful, a lot of work is required.
Writing the rates of failure in transcripts is optional.
Important Documents of ECTS
Information Package/Course Catalogue
Information Package/Course Catalog is published by taking place on the pages or/and web pages prepared in the local/national language and English (if the education language is English, only available language must be English). This package/catalog must include all the information that might be important for foreign students.
It covers the ECTS credits for each courses and the list of the courses to be taken. This list must be accepted by the student and the relevant academic institution. If credit transfer came into question, the learning agreement must be accepted by the student and the relevant two institutions before the student leaves the country and should be updated immediately in case of any change.
The Transcript of Records
It documents student performance by indicating the courses taken, achieved ECTS credits, local or national credits and ECTS grades if available. The transcript must be prepared by his/her own university before the student leaves, and it must be prepared by the host university at the end of the education period in case of credit transcript.