Employment Skills

  • What is a CV?

CV is the abbreviated version of "Curriculum Vitae".  Curriculum means "race, competition" and Vitae means "Life" in Latin. Namely, Curriculum Vitae (CV) means "life competition". Both words are replaced by the word "özgeçmiş/resume" in Turkish. We can describe it as a written presentation document we generally prepare for job applications with the aim of presenting ourselves to potential employees by writing our life, skills, talents, working performance and experiences. Resumes must be clear, explicit and short.

Which information should be in CV?

1-Identity Information

2-Education Information

3-Job Experiences

4-Fields of Specialty




8-Contact Information

9-Foreign Language Information

10-Completed Courses

11-Diplomas and Certificates

  • The points to be careful during a job interview

Interview is the general name of the meeting held in order to get to know and recruit candidates.

The candidate shouldn't smoke even if it is served.

The candidate should smile without any exaggeration and shake the interviewer's hand properly for a positive start.

The candidate must keep his/her mobile phone switched off during interview.

The candidate should definitely not check her/his watch during interview.

The candidate should not bring financial possibilities of the position forward before the interviewer opens up the subject.

The candidate should maintain eye contact.

The candidate should be honest and s/he should say "I do not know" if that's the case.

The candidate should show as much as possible that s/he is enthusiastic about the work.

The candidate should avoid missing or misleading information regarding her/his career.

The candidate should show respect to the interviewer but should not think the interviewer is superior to her/him.

The candidate should be careful about her/his gestures, way of sitting and movements, should look confident by taking into account that your body language may inform against you.

Basically, there are four types of interviews:

One-on-One Interview / Panel Interview:

One-on-One and panel interviews have similar features, the only difference between them is one-on-one interviews have one interviewer (consultant, HR manager or department manager) and panel interviews have more than one interviewer; and these people are generally HR managers and/or department managers. Since all eyes will be on you during interview, you need to pay attention to your cloths, talk, behavior, way of sitting, in short everything.

They make a judgement about you the moment you enter the door. Your cloths, behaviors and attitude send signals to the other side, so the first impression is very important.

Men should generally wear suits and ties in job interviews even though there are differences in different sectors. Dark colors and grayscale should be preferred in suits. Shoes and belts should be matching (black belt with black shoes, brown belt with brown shoes, etc.), extreme colored and patterned ties should be avoided. White and blue shirts should be preferred, and excessive pattern, tartan, etc. should be avoided in general. Skirt and trouser suits are the best choices for women. They should avoid extreme assertive and colorful cloths, and complete their outfits with plain shoes. Closed toe shoes and skin color, unprinted socks should be chosen. Light makeup should be applied. Neutral, pink or soft red lipsticks and neutral nail polish are suggested. Patterns such as evil eye talismans, flowers, insects, butterflies, very fashionable recently, should be avoided. Excessive usage of accessories should not be preferred and the outfit should be completed with a simple necklace and earrings. Smelly perfumeries and odors should not be used.

The first impression is done… You should greet the interviewer(s) with a slight smile, shake his/her hand mildly by grasping the whole hand when you enter the room. If there are more than two people in the room, it is unnecessary to try to shake everyone's hand. You should not sit down until they ask you to do, and if you remain standing you should ask permission to sit out of the corner of your eye.

Body language is also very important. You should sit up straight and avoid placing your hands on your legs. If you have to keep your hands on table, be careful not to play constantly with your hands or other objects, it might distract the other person's attention. Also, you should avoid touching your face constantly. You should look energetic and eager in addition to being comfortable. Generally, the candidates who have job interviews with highly corporate companies try to be overly serious, but nowadays, energetic, motivated, so to speak, warm-blooded candidates are more approved.  Therefore, trying to be so serious during whole interview may cause you to lose points. Hence, smiling matters, it spreads positive vibes. Do not force yourself to joke but if you are able to do one without exaggerating within the context, it might make you look sympathetic.

You must look at the interviewer's eyes when answering her/his question (but do not stare uncomfortably). Do not forget that looking at ceiling or floor while answering a question may cause you point loss. 

Do not lead in subjects including religion, politics, sports partisanship, because the opposite side might not be sharing your opinions, and this situation may cause antipathy. You must remember that the interviewer is also a human and s/he has thoughts, feelings, values too even if s/he tries to be objective.

Do not answer questions with one words such as "yes, no, sure…". Your answers should be explanatory and long enough. That is to say, your answers should not be very short, and also you should not go into too much details unless the interviewer demands that.

For Example:

  • "Did you get a master's degree?"
  • "Yes"

Such an answer might cause another question or uncertainty. Instead of saying just "yes", an answer as follows will be sufficient:

  • "Yes. I attained a master's degree on information technologies after graduating from Istanbul University"

Your answers should definitely be supported with examples. One of the most frequently asked questions is "Where do you see yourself in X years?" When you answer this question as "I would like to be at your position", do not think your interview was successful, because %90 of the candidates gives such answers. The accurate answer of this question is clearly describing which steps you will take, how long it will take to complete these steps, and where do you want to be in the sequel of these actions.

Do not open the subject of employee personal rights unless you are asked to do during interview. You should definitely have knowledge about the company and the position you applied. If you attend an interview without knowing what position you will work at the company, the opposite side might think that you attended for no reason.

Finally, you should avoid being late for a job interview at all costs, it is also not good to arrive too early, thus you should be there 5-10 minutes early.

Group Interview:

It is the type of interview where more than one candidate is evaluated at the same time. In general, candidates are given a topic or scenario and asked to discuss it or make a compromise on it. The most important point to consider during a job interview is holding the floor at least one time or more than one time if possible, and presenting opinions. There is always one person who tries to talk most in group interviews, therefore beginning to talk and making comments might be difficult sometimes. It is often observed some shy people do no utter a word during whole interview, and it is inevitable for them to be eliminated. There might not be an ultimate right in group interviews, accordingly your speech and ability of persuasion come into prominence. In addition, you should be careful not to interrupt others or get angry and raise your voice. While defending a counter-argument, you should show a positive approach and say "I think differently" instead of showing negative approach and returning as "no, not like this". Defending your opinions, being an active participant, supporting your view with examples and arguments are important; you should also pay attention to be compatible, polite, respectful, energetic and eager.

Phone Interview:

These interviews are carried out through telephones. Phone interviews can be beneficial under the conditions determined below:

If the candidate's tone and stress of voice is important (Example: Call center, telemarketing, etc.)

If the candidate lives in a remote location from the company center or lives in abroad

If there is time limitation, it might be preferred for preselection.

The Others:

-Stress Interview:

Stress interviews measure the ability to work under pressure of the candidates who will generally work in areas such as inspection, stock market, security units, air controlling.

-Presentation Interview:

Self-expression and presentation abilities are examined in presentation interviews.

-Simulation Interview:

These interviews include animation, behavior and skill observation with a scenario.

What kind of questions can be asked in job interviews?

-Can you tell me a little about yourself?

Talk about your prominent features written in your CV and be absolutely honest.

-Can you tell me a little about your educational background?

Try to emphasize the parts related to the position you applied. Be sure to mention the seminars you attended.

-Can you tell us about your job experiences?

Specify the features that may contribute to the position you applied when you speak of your job experiences. Do not use negative sentences for the reasons of leaving the company and do not talk about the company in a bad way. The interviewer may direct you in this way, but you should talk positively.

-Why did you choose your department?

It will be in your advantage to indicate that you consciously chose your department and to give reasonable explanation, but always be honest.

-Why did you choose this sector/position?

The explanations you will make by linking with your education and personality will gain you extra points. You should also mention the career targets you have determined for yourself on this path.

-What were the responsibilities of your last position?

Describe your last position in details, also mention with whom you were working and your reports.

-Why do you want to work with us?

You should definitely learn about the company before the interview. Find detailed information about the company's corporate structure, its position in the sector, etc., and present these as a reason to work with them.

-Why should we choose you over others?

Express that you are suitable for the job by telling your knowledge, skills, personality and abilities and even by giving examples.

-What are your strengths and weaknesses?

Focus on the job, not on your character. A feature you evaluate as negative can be seen as an advantage for the company. For example: Being perfectionist or hypercritical may tire you, but the company will perceive them as positive features. However, do not mention a feature that you don't have to make sure you have positive features.

-What are your short-term and long-term goals?

When talking about your career goals, be sure to use expressions that focus on more your personal development and learning processes without indicating time.

-What are your salary expectations?

If it is your first work experience, it is best to say that you will comply with the Company's salary policy. However, if you have work experience for a certain period of time, it might be beneficial to search the salaries for this position from market and say an amount accordingly. But, never use definite sentences in any case. (such as I definitely do not work under that amount of salary)

-Can you work well under stress?

It is an accurate approach to say that stress is not only a part of our work lives, but also a part of our daily lives.

-Would you rather work on a team or alone?

The importance of working on a team or alone depending on the position will occur, but it will be useful to make statements that you are inclined to both work independently or on a team.

  • Job Hunting Skills

Looking for a job is a difficult task. You need to know what you can do well and what kind of work you enjoy in order to seek and find the right job for you.

  1. You can benefit from the following resources to be informed about job opportunities.

-Firstly, you must register in the closest İŞKUR (Turkish Employment Agency) branch and obtain information about the most suitable job for you. İŞKUR consultants will help you in this. 

-Look through job ads on journals.

-You can obtain information about employment opportunities in provinces, companies, professions from trade associations, associations and unions.

-Be in constant contact with the career center of your university.  

-You can write a short resume and a one-page description explaining what kind of job you are looking for, and give them to your relatives, neighbors and friends to receive help from them.

2. Make a list of people who can give you a job.

Try to make contact with these people and write the results of these attempts in a table under the titles of company name, company address, first contact (how, where), name and title of the contact person, applied job, result tracking.

3.Make sure that the companies you will apply in a day are close to each other.

This may not always be possible, but it can save you time and reduce your transportation costs if you manage to do that.

4.Work hard.

-Identify five to eight applications per day and continue your works until you complete all of them.

5.Fill out your table precisely by updating it every day. 

-Follow your table in an absolute manner and check the information after interviews.

6. Be flexible.

-The job proposed to you may be different from your actual occupation. You may have to accept different working hours and travel requirements than you are used to. Do not refuse this job offer without thinking it over in the long term.

7. Do not ignore the jobs that will pay you less than your last job.

-Your net profit might be much more than you earned in your previous job when financial opportunities such as premiums, social aid, rewards are calculated along with the salary.

8. Take at least one hour each day to write application letter.

Update your registrations and plan your next interview within this period of time. If there is no job interview that day, you can make use of the time well.


Recognize your personality. It is not possible to be successful in a job that doesn't suit your personality. Personality is a way of behavior that we repeat within a certain period of time and the decisions we take in the face of events. Reflecting our true identity, our personality traits are inborn and changes very little just like our abilities. Human resources units of companies or HR consultancy companies carry out various personality tests in personnel selection. Extraversion/introversion, emotional stability, compatibility, responsibility, openness to experience are the five personal features examined in these tests, and the results are evaluated according to whether they are suitable for the job.

Determine your field of interest. We do the tasks that are compatible with our interests more fervently and rigorously. We can express and improve ourselves better in what we do with pleasure. We can search our jobs in accordance with our field of interest and education. We can determine the sector we want to work in line with our field of interest. Examples to fields of interests; books, sport, cinema, technology, painting, finance, social activities, collections, computer-internet, scientific researches, psychology, music, architecture, history, automobiles, education/training, archeology, decoration, etc.

Determine your skills and competences. Competencies are observable behaviors that include "information, skills and attitudes" ensuring excellent performance.  Our competencies gain more importance in working life. "Specialization" in a profession has gained importance in business world. This situation increased the competencies required in a person. If we can display our knowledge and skills in any subject in business life, we can demonstrate that we are competent in that subject. Competencies can be improved later by working hard, but it is observed that people's inborn skills and competencies, and the fields of study are compatible when the people who achieved outstanding successes are examined. These people realize their competences and built their careers on these characteristics. Some of the competencies required in business life are to be able to make good plans, to be able to analyze people, to be self-disciplines and orderly, to stay calm under pressure, to be able to manage people, to be able to express yourself, to have numerical memory, to have strong social relationships, to have excellent communication skills, to be inclined to team work, to have management competencies, etc.

Realize your values. Our values are our beliefs, principles and right-wrong criterions guide our decisions and priorities. Knowing our values will enable us to reflect our self-respect to our colleagues, managers and business. This will bring both our and our company's success. The human wit self-respect and self-worth can add value to her/his environment and job. Some of our values are; sense of responsibility, personal development, health, loyalty to your job, dedication to work, honesty, outspokenness, family, ideals, justice, reliability.


Seek advice of your acquaintances. Ask them the questions below:

What kind of career should I choose to become a successful person in your opinion?

What qualifications do I have that will make me successful?

What qualifications do I have that might hinder my success?

What profession would you choose if you were on my shoes?

Which two qualifications should I improve in your opinion?

What will my profession be ten years later?

Don't circle the wagons when receiving feedback so that they can express their intimate ideas. Just listen and ask questions at this phrase. One of your conversations should not ideally exceed 2 hours. Set a goal. Meet with at least two people who fit this profile in the next month. Ask them to give opinions supported by their real life experiences. Do not forget to take notes. It is not healthy to receive feedbacks from your family. Therefore, asking to your friends or to the people from your school will lead more objective results.


Looking for a job is a long process. You need to be planned in order to use this process effectively.

Determine your priorities. Note each step you take. This will save you time, keep you organized and prevent you to make mistakes. Create a file on your computer and write all your plans down; your contact people, the companies you sent your resume, your interview experiences, the question they asked, your answers, etc.

If you want to start working in summer, you should start looking for a job in spring. You need to follow the market all year if you want to do internship, work under contract or have a permanent job. If you are still a student or working full-time but want to change your job, you should envisage to spare 8 hours a week to seek job. If you are a newly graduate or not working currently, you should spare your all time for this research. Do not forget to follow new developments in your profession while looking for a job.


Research sectors, companies, growing work areas.

Crate a target company list.

Research new entrants and products.

Research the companies recruiting new personnel.

Research the companies getting into foreign market


More than 60% of the people, who change their jobs, find their new positions through their acquaintances in according to the surveys conducted worldwide. 22% of them applies directly to companies, and the remaining 18% find their jobs through newspaper ads or Human Resources Consultancy. Although the easiest way to look for a job is benefiting from newspaper ads and human resources consultancy, it is also the area where competition is very high. The more applications are made to one job, the more difficult it becomes to be selected among other candidates. Our and the other people's interests and fields of activity are similar, however the contribution of the people from different worlds is much more important. Our acquaintances and the networks created through them is the group that will help us most when looking for a job.  The elements that may create your social network are as below:

Your former colleagues and employers.

The acquaintances who have similar interests and fields of activity with you.

The alumni associations of which you are a member.

Family circle, neighbors and acquaintances.

People you met online.

People you met in social gatherings.

People you met on bus, plane or at cinema.


You need to know the position types in companies before seeking job in order to evaluate the possible opportunities better:

Open Positions: These are the open positions announced in various places. You can learn them from job ads, consultancy companies, internet, environment, etc. Both employed and unemployed people apply for these positions. It includes high competition.

Partially Open Positions: These positions are only announced within the company. You can only learn such positions from your circle. It includes low competition.

Secret Positions: It is not announced in or outside of the company. Some of these positions are valid today, some of them will be in future. You can learn these positions from your environment. If your qualifications and knowledge are suitable with the secret position of the company, you will receive information about it. These positions may not have been fully established yet or may be considered to renew a position.


Job Ads:

Newspaper job ads appear on human resources annexes (Sunday annexes), published separately on weekends, besides daily newspapers. Qualified personnel are generally brought in with the ads published in these annexes. Collect all the job ads, you are interested in and applied for, in a folder. Record the publication dates of the ads, your application dates, and then communication and interview information. Keep daily ads in a separate place and follow the changes.

The Other Ads: The sources, you can find ads except written and visual media and internet, are as follows:

-Ads put up within workplaces

-Ads put up within schools, military units, professional associations, etc.


-Ads announced by posts

-Ads announced by radio and television

Corporate Websites of Companies: Some companies announce vacancies by publishing them on their corporate websites. Such announcements usually contain all the information that an ad must have. Also, detailed information regarding the company can be obtained. Companies put their job application forms on their websites to enable people to make job applications via these websites. These application forms might be filled in as "general application" forms even if a specific job announcement has not been made. Your information in the form is recorded in candidate personnel database of the company and evaluated for the positions to be opened later. It is recommended that you should particularly apply for the jobs in line with your career targets and job priorities.

The Company and Its Employees: One of the ways to learn whether there is a job opportunity is to obtain information directly from the company or its employees. If you do not know any of the employees, you can ask to public relations or human resources department face-to-face or via telephone. However, it is not the recommended way to find a job. Firstly, they will answer your question as follows: "We will announce you when we have an open position". Such an initiative is not evaluated as a professional approach. If you have any acquaintances working in that company, you can obtain more accurate information from them

Friends, Relatives and Acquaintances: Informing your acquaintances about what kind of work you are looking for provides many benefits for you. These benefits are:

-They inform you about the job opportunities in their companies,

-They can recommend you to their companies or the other companies they have business relations with or the companies they have information about.

-They may have seen or heard of the job announcements that you could not follow and they can inform you about them.

-They can provide you healthier and more realistic information about their companies and whether there is any open position.

-They can give you more realistic information and advice on their sectors, professions, features of the jobs and working conditions.

Turkish Employment Agency: The bulletins containing vacant job positions published by the Turkish Employment Agency can also be beneficial. However, the higher level of profession with more qualifications you have, the lower chance you get to find a job through this source. First of all, you should register your name in the nearest Turkish Employment Agency, and get information about the most suitable job for you from Human Resources Companies.

Human Resources Companies: Human resources companies are the organizations specialized in human resources functions (organization, recruitment, performance evaluation, education, etc.). HR companies provide consultancy and support services to other companies. HR companies do not find a job for you, on the contrary, they evaluate your resume for the open positions of the companies they provide service. If you have applied for general vacancies, do not expect to be called for a re-interview instantly, because the principle of HR companies is "recruiting people by the characteristics of a job".

Human Resources Website: This is the most common way of looking for a job. The increasing use of the internet on a daily basis has led to creation of the websites that bring together job seekers and companies. The points to pay attention about HR websites are as follows:

-It is not enough to upload your resume into the web pages of HR companies, you should also keep it updated. If you do not update it for a certain period of time, for example 6 months, your resume becomes inactive. The most recent updated resume is at the top of the list created for interviews.

-The more complete information you write on your resume, the more likely you are to be chosen.

-The opportunities provided to individuals by HR websites are important for both individuals and companies. Because if the companies do not show interest to the site, the possibility of evaluation of their resumes decreases. However, when the website came into activity also should be taken into consideration in the number of member companies.

Trade Unions and Professional Associations: The individuals, who are a member of a certain trade union or professional association, can benefit from the opportunities provided to jobseeker members by these organizations in searching for job opportunities. These organizations are generally in close contact with the employer companies. Some companies also send job advertisements to these organizations.

School Visits, Career Days, Career Centers of Companies: Company officials visit schools and universities, attend activities such as career days and career fairs to attract successful students. As a student, it is very useful to follow such activities. In this way, you can obtain information about professions, sectors, companies and positions directly from authorized persons. Most companies participating in such activities also provide the opportunity to fill out job application forms. They support university students seeking internship and job seeking graduates by way of career centers. You can give your resumes and ask for support in career planning and internship at these centers.

Internship Practices: Enabling students to practice their school knowledge in business life or observe the applications in business life, internship practices are usually a compulsory part of educational activities and an important opportunity in seeking job opportunities.

-You can be a potential candidate for the company you did an internship after a successful internship practice.

-You learn the company, culture and working conditions of the company through internship practices.

-The company employees you met during your internship can help you after your graduation, especially when researching the job opportunities within that company.


Study the introductory information about the company. If you think it is exaggerated, search for other sources. Getting detailed information about the company is useful for carrying out an accurate evaluation in all cases.

Some companies do not share the company names in the advertisement to ensure that the competitors and employees of the company do not have any information regarding the new recruitment. These companies advertise either directly or through HR companies. Since the telephone number is not given in the direct advertisement of the company, there is no possibility to obtain detailed information about the company. You need to form an opinion about the company by using the given information except its name (sector, size, etc.) in the circumstances.

You can estimate the nature of business if there is a job definition in the advertisement. This is the outline of your responsibilities in a sense. The expressions used in this definition also indicates the knowledge level of the advertisers.

Ads usually include the required characteristics. These are the requirements or qualifications of the work. These qualifications need to comply with the job description. Also, the exaggerated and insufficient job qualifications and their level of detail and explanandum give you an idea of the company's understanding of professionalism. Be careful where the working position is. Sometimes application place and workplace might be different. The manager of the position, number of employees related to the position, working conditions, and rarely some of the opportunities provided might be included in the ad. This information is important to evaluate the nature of the position. Also, you can have an idea about the corporate culture of the company.

If there is a reference number for the position, it is useful to specify the reference number besides the name of the position you applied in your cover letter. The location and form of the application, whom it is addressed to, and the period of time available for application are important information. You should follow these points when applying for a job.

Including the principle of confidentiality of applications is another indicator that reflects the company's understanding of professionalism.

If an advertisement is written in a foreign language, it means that the candidates should have good command of that language. Thus, the advertiser eliminates the candidates who do not know that language at this stage.  You must prepare your resume and cover letter in that language when you apply. 

güncelleme: 3.12.2018 16:46