Endodontics is a branch dealing with root canal treatment in teeth. Under enamel and dentin layers, there is a part named "pulp" where the vein and nerve pack that provides the vitality of the tooth exist. This part, named "pulp chamber" in the dental crown, extends to the end of the tooth root. If the dental pulp is got infected for any reason, the dental nerve should be removed, the channels must be sterilized and then filled. Root canal treatment is applied as one session for vital tooth and two sessions for non-vital tooth.
Every person has bacteria in the mouth cavity. They are harmless unless the unwanted conditions occur. Bacteria combine with many of the foods we consume and they form acids in our mouths. If we cannot remove these acids from our mouths, these substances damage the enamel and cause decays in the enamel layer. If the decays occurred in the enamel are not treated, they get over to the dentin layer under the enamel layer. Although the dentin layer stimulates us through pain, if the decays are still untreated, then the microorganisms move towards the dental pulp. In the meantime, dental pulp activates various ways to protect itself. One of these ways is to warn us through pain. However, if we do not have our teeth treated again, the microorganisms will destroy the veins and nerves in the pulp and allow infection to occur.
is another way of forming infection in the pulp. Receiving a blow to the tooth
may cause to break of the veins and nerves between root apex and tooth root, thus
the loss of vitality of the tooth. Addition of microorganisms in any way to
this situation causes infection of the pulp. Another
way of having infection of the pulp is to have a long term periodontal disease
(gingival and peripheral) around the tooth.
Infection and start of infection might be the reason of pain and sensibility of teeth while consuming cold and hot food and beverages and pain during eating. Excessive color changes that occur in teeth may also be perceived as infection. Apart from these, in the untreated teeth that decay reaches to the pulp, the infection reaches to jawbone from root apex and cause small or large swellings on the face. In this case, antibiotics as well as procedures performed by dentists are also suitable in the fight against infection. The general opinion is that the tooth causing facial swelling should be removed after the swollen face is treated. However, this is a very old idea. Even teeth that cause such large infections can be kept in the mouth by root canal treatment, and this tooth can serve you for years like a healthy tooth.
Detection of the problematic teeth by using radiography.
If the tooth is vital, local anesthesia is performed to remove the sensation in the tooth and the surrounding tissues.
Formation of the cavity to reach the pulp by cleaning the decay of the enamel and dentin layers of the tooth.
Isolation of the teeth by using rubber dam.
Determination of the working length by using electronic instruments and verification of it by using radiography.
Destruction and removal of the infected dentin layers, microorganisms in root canals by using rotary instrument systems.
Destruction of microorganisms with various root canal disinfectants when rotary instruments are used in root canals.
If the tooth is not vital when starting the root canal treatment, waiting for a certain period of time with a channel antiseptic to be placed within the root canal, and filling the root canals during the next application.
After root canal treatment, the relation between the tooth and the surrounding tissues is ended. It is intended to prevent a possible infection and repair damages in the surrounding tissue of the tooth, if there is any. Root canal treatment is done under local anesthesia and no pain is felt.
Following the root canal treatment, an endurable pain that lasts for several days may occur or a pain might be felt when pressed on the tooth especially after the treatment of a vital tooth. This is a normal pain that occurs after root canal treatment. The pain is relieved in a short time after protection of the tooth with the root canal treatment. Today, the success rate of root canal treatment with the correct treatment method reaches 90%.